Udalscalcus [Udalschalk, Uodalscalc] of Maisach - Uccelli [née Pazzini], Carolina Uccellini, Marco
Udalscalcus [Udalschalk, Uodalscalc] of Maisach
(b Augsburg; dAugsburg, 10 March 1149 or 1151). German composer, historian and hagiographer. He was a student, then a Benedictine monk, and finally abbot (after 1124) of the monastery of St Ulrich and Afra, Augsburg. He is said to have reconstructed it along the lines of the monastery of Hirsau and to have devoted much energy to ornamenting the church. Two somewhat different but parallel accounts from old chronicles testify to his musical talents, as well as to his skill as a versifier.
Two substantial musical works by Udalscalcus survive: his Offices for St Ulrich and for St Conrad. The text of the Ulrich Office is in hexameters; the antiphons are arranged in modal order, the responsories in reverse modal order, a striking novelty. The text of the Conrad Office is in rhymed prose. The music of both Offices is bold and imaginative, going far beyond the limits of classical Gregorian style (see Dörr, Schlager and Wohnhaas for an edition of the music of the Ulrich Office). Two hymns by Udalscalcus also survive, for Ulrich and Afra, respectively, and a sequence for Ulrich.
Udalscalcus composed a tonary or had one compiled according to his instructions (‘secundum prescriptum piae memoriae domini Udalschalci’). It is to be found in slightly differing versions in two 12th-century manuscripts, D-W Gud.lat.334 (from St Ulrich and Afra, Augsburg) and Mbs Clm 9921 (from Ottobeuren).
, ed.: ‘Des Abtes Udalskalk … Registrum Tonorum’, Archiv für die Geschichte des Bisthums Augsburg, ii/1 (1858), 68–78
Huglo: Les tonaires: inventaire, analyse, comparaison (Paris, 1971)
Berschin: ‘Uodalscalc-Studien, I: Uodalscalcs Vita S. Kuonradi im hagiographischen Hausbuch der Abtei St. Ulrich und Afra’, ‘Uodalscalc-Studien, II: Historia S. Kuonradi’, Freiburger Diözesan-Archiv, xcv (1975), 82–106, 107–28 [Fs Der heilige Konrad, also pubd separately (Freiburg, 1975)]
Berschin: ‘Uodalscalc-Studien, III: Historia S. Udalrici’, Tradition und Wertung: Festschrift für Franz Brunhölzl, ed. G. Bernt, F. Rädle and G. Silagi (Sigmaringen, 1989), 155–64
, eds.: ‘Das Ulrichsoffizium des Udalschalk von Maisach: Autor – Musikalische Gestalt – Nachdichtung’, Jb des Vereins für Augsburger Bistumsgeschichte e.V., xxvi–xxvii (1992–3), 751–82 [Fs Bischof Ulrich von Augsburg 890–973, also pubd separately (Weissenhorn, 1993)]
Berschin: ‘Uodalscalc von St. Ulrich und Afra OSB’, Die deutsche Literatur des Mittelalters: Verfasserlexikon’, x/1 (Berlin and New York, 2/1966), 109–14
LAWRENCE GUSHEE/DAVID HILEY
Udbye, Martin Andreas
(b Trondhjem, 18 June 1820; d Trondhjem, 10 Jan 1889). Norwegian composer and organist. He was largely self-taught and said of his independent study: ‘I got hold of a harmony text, and with its help and some study of song scores I succeeded rather late in working out the mysteries of harmony’. In 1844 he was appointed organist at the Hospitalskirke in Trondhjem, a post he held for 25 years. In 1851 a scholarship enabled him to spend a year in Leipzig, the first of two trips abroad that greatly influenced his career. He studied composition with Hauptmann and the organ with Carl Becker and attended concerts and the opera frequently. On his return home in 1852 he became singing master at the cathedral school. Another scholarship made possible a study trip in 1858–9, this time to Berlin, Leipzig, Dresden, Vienna and London. In 1869 he moved as organist to the Vår Frue Kirke in Trondhjem.
Udbye's impressive output of diverse and complex works belies his limited formal training. His compositions include the opera, Fredkulla (‘The Peacemaker’, 1858), the operettas Hr. Perrichons reise (1861), Hjemve (‘Homesickness’, 1862; produced at Christiania, 8 April 1864) and Junkeren og flubergrosen (‘The Squire and the Rose of Fluberg’, 1867; Christiania, 7 January 1870), the cantatas Sonatorrek (‘The Loss of a Son’, 1872) and Islaendinger i Norge (1873), choruses, three string quartets (1851–5), an orchestral sketch entitled Lumpasivagabundus (1861), a fantasy on Scandinavian melodies for violin and orchestra (1866), 20 piano trios (1868) and 100 organ preludes (mostly 1867). His stylistic model was German Romanticism, and his dramatic works in particular show the influence of Weber, among others; his attempts to create a personal style were only partly successful. Of the 46 works to which he gave opus numbers, 21 are orchestral or for various vocal combinations with orchestral or piano accompaniment; his affinity for drama is apparent in these works from his choice of texts and his musical expression. His string quartets however are Classical in style and he seems largely to have been uninfluenced by Norwegian folk music.
One of the most gifted Norwegian composers of his time, Udbye was unable to achieve the recognition he deserved, perhaps owing to his lifelong economic difficulties and to being overshadowed by his contemporaries Kjerulf and L.M. Lindeman and, somewhat later, by Grieg and Svendsen. Few of his works were published, most of the manuscripts now being held by the Vitenskapsselskapets Bibliothek in Trondheim. Udbye's unusually large private music collection contained many works by all the important, as well as many minor, composers from the Renaissance to his own time.
Wisth: ‘Komponisten Martin Andreas Udbye og de musikalske miljø i Trondhjem omkring 1850’, Trondhjemske samlinger, 3rd ser., ii/4 (1967), 304–17
Grinde: Norske musikkhistorie (Oslo, 1971, 4/1993; Eng. trans., 1991)
Hegre: Martin Andreas Udbyes strykekvartetter: en analytisk studie (diss., U. of Oslo, 1973)
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