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The pri mate so ciet y of g reat br itai - səhifə 6


 



 



Lemurs of Madag



asca



r: Huntin



g, Killing a



nd 



Conservatio



n  

Hajari


mani

tra R


am

bel


oarivony

1

, Jona



h Ratsim

bazafy


2

, Richard K. B.

 

Jenkins


1

Oxf



ord

 Brookes U

niv

ersity; 


2

Univ


ersité d’Antan

anarivo


, Dep

artem


ent d

Paleont



olog

y; 


3

School


 of B

iol


ogical

 Scienc


es, Uni

ver


sity

 of A


ber

deen a


nd 

Madagasi


kara Voa

kaj


y, Ant

anana


rivo

, M


ada

gascar. 


Email: h

aja


_kely2

005@yahoo

.fr 

 

Madagascar l



acks large mamm

als, suc


h as seen i

Africa and Asia.



 

Conse


quent

ly,


 lem

urs pl


ay a m

ore im


portant

 rol


e as

 prot


ein s

ources


 fo

humans. 



Hunt

ing


 occur

s al


l-y

ear-ro


und

 in 


Madagasca

r, b


ut reac

hes it 


peaks

 

duri



ng ce

rtai


n peri

ods. M


ala

gasy


 peopl

e mainl


y t

rap


 lem

urs f


or 

subsi


ste

nce.


 

Some gro


ups, ho

wever


, h

unt as sou

rce of i

ncom


e, wi

th few p


ractis

ing i


t as a 

sport. Lemurs 

are hunted alm

ost


 every

wher


e t

hey


 occur

, from


 prot

ected 


to 

unprotected areas and fr

om t

he 80


 g Micr

ocebus to th

e 6 kg Prop



ithecu

s, 

with


 di

fferent


 le

vels o


f p

ress


ure

. Hunt


ing

 techni


ques are 

dive


rse, incl

udi


ng 

trad


itiona

l sn


ares to shoo

ting, and

 us

ing dogs. 



Hun

ting h


as 

a dir


ect n

ega


tive 

impact


 on lem

ur po


pulat

ions, a


nd 

has i


ndirect

 effe


cts suc

h as 


on 

reproductio

n su

ccess. Killin



g for non

-consu


mptiv

e pur


poses also

 occu


rs, 

such


 as the k

illing of aye ayes d

ue to

 traditio



nal b

eliefs 


of 

their b


eing

 a bad 


om

en. As hun

ting 

of lem


urs is still 

less than

 in o

the


r prim

ate range 

coun

tries, there is still a c



han

ce to curt

ail it befo

re it b


ecom

es mo


re 

detrimental. St

ill, recent research suggests 

that the i

mpac

t of hunting on 



certai

n l


em

ur po


pul

ations i


s m

ore t


han exp

ected. Pr

omot

ing farm


ing co

uld 


be a go

od so


lutio

n t


o red

uce le


mur h

untin


g. Not on

ly doe


s it prov

ide 


farmers wi

th 


more reve

nue, but


 also

 meat


 from

 domest


ic 

anim


als t

end t


o be

 

preferred. 



Developm

ent p


rojects, su

ch as trad

itional tex

tiles, tourism

 and 

scientific expeditions



, coul

d accom


pany 

such measures. Finally, we 

discus



the i



mpo

rtan


t o

f th


e ro

le of ed


ucation

 within


 rural commu

nities to

 mitiga

te 


this th

reat. 


 

 

Local



 Prim



ate



 Trade



 in



 Am



azonas



 and 



San M



art



in



, Peru 

Noga Shanee & 

Sam Shanee

 

Durell Institute for C



ons

ervation


 Eco

log


y, Un

iversity o

f Ken

t an


Neotro


pical

 Prim


ate C

onserva


tion, 

Helene


 Col

lon


gues,

 IK


AMA 

Peru 


Email: nogas

hanee@gm


ail.com 

 

The Per



uvian

 depa


rtm

ent


s of Am

azonas and Sa

n-M

art


in,

 whi


ch l

ie i


n t

he 


Tropi

cal A


ndes B

iodi


versi

ty Hot


spot

, are ho


me t

o m


any

 endem


ic speci

es, 


inclu

din


g t

hree o


f Peru’s en

dem


ic p

rim


ates; th

e Critically En

dang

ered 


yel

low-t


aile

d wo


olly

 monke


y (

Oreonax f

lavi

cau

da), t

he Rio


 Mayo titi

 

25



females do most handling but the ‘maternal relief hypothesis’ is not 

supported.  

 

 

Population Densities and Distribution of Night Monkeys (Aotus zonalis



in Central Panama 

Magdalena S. Svensson

1

, Rafael Samudio



2

, Simon K. Bearder

1

  

1



Nocturnal Primate Research Group, Department of Anthropology and 

Geography, Oxford Brookes University; 

2

Sociedad Mastozoológica de 



Panamá, Aptdo, Parque Lefevre , Zona 10, Panamá 

Email: svensson_magdalena@hotmail.com 

 

Uncertainty surrounding the taxonomy of Aotus may cause problems in 



conservation efforts. Data on population densities and distribution for newly 

classified Aotus species are urgently needed. The species within the genus 

are in general under-studied and no previous study has been made on the 

Panamanian night monkey (Aotus zonalis) of Chagres National Park. 

Population densities and geographic distribution were estimated using 

transect census methods, comparing three different study sites; a lowland 

habitat (Campo Chagres) and two highland habitats (Cerro Azul and la 

Llana). A total of 33 individuals in 16 groups were observed in two out of 

the three sites. Population density was more than twice as high in the 

lowland forest at Campo Chagres (29.7 A. zonalis/km

2

) compared to the 



highland forest at Cerro Azul (12.4 A. zonalis/km

2

) and no Aotus were 



sighted in la Llana. These findings concur with previous research on the 

genus. Group sizes were found to be similar in both highland and lowland 

forest habitats (2 and 2.1 respectively). The species appears well-adapted to 

human disturbance and secondary forests but population densities are still 

small compared to other species within the genus and careful management 

for conservation of the species should be continued. Some species of Aotus 

are seriously under-represented in the research conducted on the genus, and 

urgent attention is needed to establish their conservation needs. 



 



 



High Prevalence of Sarcoptic Mange (Scabies) in Pet Macaques in 



Northeastern Thailand 

Matthew Todd and Vincent Nijman 

Oxford Brookes University, Department of Anthropology and Geography 

Email:  08024075@brookes.ac.uk 

 

Sarcoptic mange, or scabies, leading to various skin disorders in a range of 



domestic and wild mammals, is caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei. 

Sarcoptic mange has been reported in several primate taxa, including 

gorillas, chimpanzees and macaques; transmittal is though direct contact. 

We quantified the occurrence of sarcoptic mange in a population of semi-

free ranging Macaca fascicularis (n=21), and in a sample of pet macaques 

27

monkey (Calicebus oenanthe) and the Andean night monkey (Aotus 



miconax). These departments suffer from the highest rates of deforestation 

in Peru fuelled by high immigration rates and lack of government 

intervention. Immigration has also led to the opening up of new areas to 

settlement and uncontrolled hunting. Here we present details of animals 

found in the illegal wildlife trade, particularly primates. Data collected 

cover the period from April 2007 to November 2008. A total of 614 

animals, including 97 primates, were recorded. Of these we found 18 O. 

flavicauda kept or sold as pets, used locally as bushmeat or skins used for 

decoration. Records were collected through visits to local markets, illegal 

zoos, tourist attractions and other ad lib. observation. These preliminary 

estimates represent a minimum of the actual number of primates which are 

taken from the wild in Amazonas and San Martin. There is a severe lack of 

funding and capacity building within the authorities and a lack of rescue 

centres for homing wild animals. We recommend greater coordination 

between, and support for, authorities and NGOs working in the area.  



 



 



Infant Handling in Black-and-White Colobus (Colobus guereza

) in 



Kanyawara, Kibale National Park, Uganda 

Katrina D. Sherenco, Stuart Semple

 

and Caroline Ross 



Centre for Research in Evolutionary Anthropology, Roehampton 

University, London 

Email: sherencok1@hotmail.com 

 

A number of hypotheses attempt to explain the phenomenon of infant 

handling, particularly within primate species. This study evaluates two of 

the most common hypotheses, the ‘learning to mother hypothesis’ and the 

‘maternal relief hypothesis’, in black-and-white colobus monkeys (Colobus 

guereza) at Kanyawara, Kibale National Park, Uganda. A ten-week study 

from March-May 2008 collected 310 focal animal observations of 45 

minutes from five habituated groups. Continuous recording of behavioural 

activities measured all occurrences and durations of infant handling bouts, 

along with which animal initiated the handling. There was a significant 

difference in infant handling difference scores within the juvenile female 

age-sex class and the adult female age-sex class. Juvenile females had the 

greatest total number of infant handling bouts and had more positive infant 

handling difference scores (i.e. handled more than would be expected by 

chance given the group composition). When looking at infant handling rates 

of individual infants, there were significant negative correlations between 

the rate the infant was handled and infant age and between non-mother 

infant handling bouts by non-mothers and infant age. Mothers did not 

appear to gain any energetic benefits from relinquishing their infants to 

others as there were no relationships between the rates of handling of their 

infants and either mother’s rates of feeding or rate of resting. Thus, the 

findings of this study support the ‘learning to mother hypothesis’ as juvenile 

26


80%

100%


80%

100%


80%

100%


80%

100%


Balance

80%


100%

80%


100%

80%


100%

80%


100%

Balance


80%

100%


80%

100%


80%

100%


80%

100%


Balance

80%


100%

100%


80%

100%


Balance

80%


100%

80%


100%

80%


100%

80%


100%

Balance


80%

100%


80%

100%


80%

100%


80%

100%


Balance

80%


100%

80%


100%

80%


100%

80%


100%

CY AN



MAJENTA



YELLOW



BLACK

(n=49) i


n B

uri


am Provi

nce, N


ort

h-east 


Thaila

nd. S


kin

 scrapes 

were

 

examined 



mac

ro- and micros

copically. Th

e ov


erall rate o

f sarcop


tic m

ange 


infection

 was 


over 50

%, but it

 tende

d to


 be

 hig


her in 

M. fascicu

laris

 (27/4


6) 

than


 in M

. ne

mestrina, 

M. mula

tta and 

M. arctoi

des (

8/2


3). The m

edi


an 

estimated age 

for infected anim

als did not

 di

ffer 


from

 that


 of n

on-i


nfected

 

animal



s (M. fascicu

lar

is: 3 

vs 2 y


ears; M. nemestrina

: 2 vs 1


 yrs). Fo

r bo


th 

species ind

ivi

duals in


fected with

 sarcoptic man

ge were mo

re likely to

 have 

a heavy parasite load. The 



freque

nt contact between m

acaques and domes

tic 


water buffalo, dom

estic pig

s, cattle an

d villag


e d

ogs


 and fo

r som


e th

eir 


hum

an o


wne

rs, is likely to hav

e facilitated

 the 


high

 level


 of

 spread o

f this 

disease. When 



these animals 

do com


e in 

contact with

 thei

r wild co



unterparts 

there is a h

igh

 lik


elihoo

d of sarcop

tic man

ge spread



ing to

 wild


 popu

lations.  



 



 



Nest Site Preferences of the



 Cr



oss River Gorilla (Go



rilla go



rilla d



iehli



in the Kagw



ene Gorilla



 Sanctuary



, Ca



meroon 

Ruth


 A. W

iseman


1

, Ymke 


Warren

2

, Aaron Nich



olas

2

, Mary E. Mackenzie 



1

,

 



James P. Higha

m

1*



 

1

School



 of

 Hum


an & Li

fe Sc


iences, R

oeha


mpt

on Uni


ver

sity


, London;

 

2



Wil

dli


fe C

ons


ervatio

n Soci


ety, Takam

anda


-M

one Lan


dsca

pe P


roject

Limb



e, C

ame


roo

n; 


*

Current ad

dress: In

stitute


 for Mi

nd and Bio

log

y, 


Univ

ersity of Ch

icago, Illin

ois, USA 

Email: boothie

_rug@hotm

ail.com

 

 



The Cro

ss River gorilla is th

e m

ost en


dangered

 of


 all Great Apes and

 its 


fragm

ented po


pulat

ions face

 severe threats

 from the bushm

eat trade and 

habitat loss. Recent years 

have see

n in


crea

sed conse

rvation e

fforts, but 

the 

detai


ls of t

he 


behavi

our


al ecol

ogy


 of t

he i


ndivi

dual


 pop

ula


tions i

n t


hei

varied ha



bita

ts i


s lacki

ng. Her


e we rep

ort o


n the pr

oduct


ion 

of a habi

tat

 m

ap 



for the n

ewly created

 Kagwene Go

rilla Sanctu

ary (KGS), Cam

ero


on, an

the resu



lts of 

an an


alysis of n

est site hab

itat preferen

ces shown

 by

 the 


gorillas th

at live


 there. 

We 


used

 GPS units to

 map

 areas of 



grassland

 and 


farm within the sanctua

ry, and recce 

walks to 

obtain data on ha

bitat types. 

We then


 us

ed GIS so

ftware t

o con


stru

ct the h


abitat 

map


. Nest sites fro

January



 2006 

to M


arch 

200


8 we

re re-v


isi

ted, a


nd dat

a o


n ha

bita


t feat

ures


 

around these nests was c

ollected. Th

e ha


bitat m

ap revealed signi

ficant 

anthropo


gen

ic i


mpact 

within


 the 

sanctu


ary boun

dary, with 

only 

57% o


f th

area surv



eyed being fo

rested


. Prim

ary mon


tan

e forest co

nstitutes the 

majority of this fore

sted area, 

with


 mixed

 herb


s the m

ost


 com

mon 


unde

rstorey


 type. A

nal


ysi

s of 


nest si

tes sho


wed

 that


 grou

nd nest


s are

 

preferen



tially constru

cted


 in 

the 


dry se

ason, on precip

itous slopes, in ligh

gaps and cl



eari

ngs, wi


th a

n un


derstorey

 of mixed her

bs. Tree nest

s are 


predo

min


antly 

built in


 the wet

 season, in

 primary forest wi

th sap


lings as th

prefer



red unde

rstorey


. The re

sults


 have a num

ber of i


mpl

icat


ions f

or t


he 

conserv


atio

n an


d m

ana


gem

ent


 of the 

Cross Riv

er gorilla at KGS, and

 offer 


new in

sight


 int

o th


e ne

stin


g e

col


ogy

 of t


his

 subs


pecies. 

28

nor losses exp



lain

 thei


r pe

rceptio


ns and t

herefore t

here is no

 simplis


tic 

mod


el fo

r miti


gatin

g conflict that will suffice. 



 



 



Lemurs of Madag



asca



r: Huntin



g, Killing a



nd 



Conservatio



n  

Hajari


mani

tra R


am

bel


oarivony

1

, Jona



h Ratsim

bazafy


2

, Richard K. B.

 

Jenkins


1

Oxf



ord

 Brookes U

niv

ersity; 


2

Univ


ersité d’Antan

anarivo


, Dep

artem


ent d

Paleont



olog

y; 


3

School


 of B

iol


ogical

 Scienc


es, Uni

ver


sity

 of A


ber

deen a


nd 

Madagasi


kara Voa

kaj


y, Ant

anana


rivo

, M


ada

gascar. 


Email: h

aja


_kely2

005@yahoo

.fr 

 

Madagascar l



acks large mamm

als, suc


h as seen i

Africa and Asia.



 

Conse


quent

ly,


 lem

urs pl


ay a m

ore im


portant

 rol


e as

 prot


ein s

ources


 fo

humans. 



Hunt

ing


 occur

s al


l-y

ear-ro


und

 in 


Madagasca

r, b


ut reac

hes it 


peaks

 

duri



ng ce

rtai


n peri

ods. M


ala

gasy


 peopl

e mainl


y t

rap


 lem

urs f


or 

subsi


ste

nce.


 

Some gro


ups, ho

wever


, h

unt as sou

rce of i

ncom


e, wi

th few p


ractis

ing i


t as a 

sport. Lemurs 

are hunted alm

ost


 every

wher


e t

hey


 occur

, from


 prot

ected 


to 

unprotected areas and fr

om t

he 80


 g Micr

ocebus to th

e 6 kg Prop



ithecu

s, 

with


 di

fferent


 le

vels o


f p

ress


ure

. Hunt


ing

 techni


ques are 

dive


rse, incl

udi


ng 

trad


itiona

l sn


ares to shoo

ting, and

 us

ing dogs. 



Hun

ting h


as 

a dir


ect n

ega


tive 

impact


 on lem

ur po


pulat

ions, a


nd 

has i


ndirect

 effe


cts suc

h as 


on 

reproductio

n su

ccess. Killin



g for non

-consu


mptiv

e pur


poses also

 occu


rs, 

such


 as the k

illing of aye ayes d

ue to

 traditio



nal b

eliefs 


of 

their b


eing

 a bad 


om

en. As hun

ting 

of lem


urs is still 

less than

 in o

the


r prim

ate range 

coun

tries, there is still a c



han

ce to curt

ail it befo

re it b


ecom

es mo


re 

detrimental. St

ill, recent research suggests 

that the i

mpac

t of hunting on 



certai

n l


em

ur po


pul

ations i


s m

ore t


han exp

ected. Pr

omot

ing farm


ing co

uld 


be a go

od so


lutio

n t


o red

uce le


mur h

untin


g. Not on

ly doe


s it prov

ide 


farmers wi

th 


more reve

nue, but


 also

 meat


 from

 domest


ic 

anim


als t

end t


o be

 

preferred. 



Developm

ent p


rojects, su

ch as trad

itional tex

tiles, tourism

 and 

scientific expeditions



, coul

d accom


pany 

such measures. Finally, we 

discus



the i



mpo

rtan


t o

f th


e ro

le of ed


ucation

 within


 rural commu

nities to

 mitiga

te 


this th

reat. 


 

 
?


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