The physics of the ear

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The physics of the ear

  • Comps II Presentation

  • Jed Whittaker

  • December 5, 2006


I. Ear anatomy

  • I. Ear anatomy

  • II. Outer ear resonator

  • III. Middle ear impedance matching

  • IV. Inner ear

  • a. Anatomy

  • b. Theories of cochlear function

  • c. Traveling wave theory

  • VII. Current work

  • a. Physical model

  • b. Mathematical model



I. Ear anatomy

  • I. Ear anatomy

  • II. Outer ear resonator

  • III. Middle ear impedance matching

  • IV. Inner ear

  • a. Anatomy

  • b. Theories of cochlear function

  • c. Traveling wave theory

  • VII. Current work

  • a. Physical model

  • b. Mathematical model



Ear anatomy



Ear anatomy



Ear anatomy



Ear anatomy substructures



I. Ear anatomy

  • I. Ear anatomy

  • II. Outer ear resonator

  • III. Middle ear impedance matching

  • IV. Inner ear

  • a. Anatomy

  • b. Theories of cochlear function

  • c. Traveling wave theory

  • VII. Current work

  • a. Physical model

  • b. Mathematical model



The outer ear



Partially closed pipe resonator model



Outer ear resonator



I. Ear anatomy

  • I. Ear anatomy

  • II. Outer ear resonator

  • III. Middle ear impedance matching

  • IV. Inner ear

  • a. Anatomy

  • b. Theories of cochlear function

  • c. Traveling wave theory

  • VII. Current work

  • a. Physical model

  • b. Mathematical model



The middle ear



Transmission and reflection



Power transmission



Ossicles as levers



Stapes footprint



Impedance match



I. Ear anatomy

  • I. Ear anatomy

  • II. Outer ear resonator

  • III. Middle ear impedance matching

  • IV. Inner ear

  • a. Anatomy

  • b. Theories of cochlear function

  • c. Traveling wave theory

  • VII. Current work

  • a. Physical model

  • b. Mathematical model



The inner ear



Cochlear schematic



Cochlear cross-section



Hair cell shearing



I. Ear anatomy

  • I. Ear anatomy

  • II. Outer ear resonator

  • III. Middle ear impedance matching

  • IV. Inner ear

  • a. Anatomy

  • b. Theories of cochlear function

  • c. Traveling wave theory

  • VII. Current work

  • a. Physical model

  • b. Mathematical model



Helmholtz’s resonance theory (1857)



Problems with resonance theory



Competing theories

  • Telephone theory required each hair cell to reproduce all frequencies

  • Standing wave theory had hair cells detecting patterns on the basilar membrane

  • Traveling wave theory described hair cells as detecting the amplitude of a wave traveling along the basilar membrane



I. Ear anatomy

  • I. Ear anatomy

  • II. Outer ear resonator

  • III. Middle ear impedance matching

  • IV. Inner ear

  • a. Anatomy

  • b. Theories of cochlear function

  • c. Traveling wave theory

  • VII. Current work

  • a. Physical model

  • b. Mathematical model



I. Ear anatomy

  • I. Ear anatomy

  • II. Outer ear resonator

  • III. Middle ear impedance matching

  • IV. Inner ear

  • a. Anatomy

  • b. Theories of cochlear function

  • c. Traveling wave theory

  • VII. Current work

  • a. Physical model

  • b. Mathematical model



I. Ear anatomy

  • I. Ear anatomy

  • II. Outer ear resonator

  • III. Middle ear impedance matching

  • IV. Inner ear

  • a. Anatomy

  • b. Theories of cochlear function

  • c. Traveling wave theory

  • VII. Current work

  • a. Physical model

  • b. Mathematical model



Appendix A

  • Transmission



Transmission and reflection



Transmission and reflection



Power



Power transmission coefficient



Power transmission



Appendix B

  • Spiral cochlea



Appendix C

  • Traveling wave derivation




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