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English newspaper writing dates back to the 17th century. The first newspapers carried only news without comments. Commenting was considered to be against the principles of journalism. Since the 19th century, newspaper language has being recognized as a particular variety of style with its own specific language and terminology different from any other type of text. The main features of the press today are a variety of photographs and bold headlines to catch the eye. Headlines serve as a guide for the reader helping to decide whether to continue on reading or not. The best headlines both 'tell and sell'.

This paper is a study of newspaper headlines, namely of their grammatical, syntactic and lexical features and structures. It is based on the analysis of 200 randomly chosen newspaper headlines and its aim is to describe the variety of the language which is commonly used by headline writers and which often deviates from the norms of the language. Understanding the headlines is a gateway to understanding the whole news.  Headline is a dependent form of newspaper writing. It is in fact a part of a larger whole. The specific functional and linguistic features of the headline provide sufficient ground for isolating and analyzing it as a specific “genre” of journalism.

A key part of newspaper language is word play. Words with two different meanings can be used in an amusing and entertaining way. This is called a pun. For example: 

Short-staffed? That's fine by Mr. Sarkozy.

This headline plays with the word “short”. “Short-staffed” means that there is not enough staff to do the job. However, this article refers to the fact that during a visit to a factory all the staff Mr. Sarsozy was introduced were not tall because he dislikes when somebody is taller than he!

The main purpose of headlines is to introduce an idea by using as short words as possible. That’s why the lexical peculiarity of newspaper headlines is its terminology used in unusual way as compared with the ordinary ones. For example:

aid – help

axe – cut, remove

back – support

bar – exclude, forbid

bid – attempt

blast – explosion

blaze – fire

boost – incentive, encourage

boss – manager, director

clash – dispute

curb – restraint, limit

cut – reduction

drama – tense situation

drive – campaign, effort

face – have to undergo

gems – jewels

go ahead – approval

crab – seize, win
Newspaper headlines often contain strings of three, four or more nouns. Like in brief news items:

Furniture f-Factory Pay Cut Row.

То understand such headlines you may try to read them contrariwise. So: row (disagreements) about cut (of cuts) in pay (salary) at the factory that makes furniture.

Special rules of grammar are frequently used by the newspaper writers. Headlines often omit both verbs and articles, for example:

New Flood Alert…

Old man scales Everest. Six killed in explosion.

Verbs might be also changed in headlines. The simple tense is used instead of the continuous or perfect tense and the infinitive is used for the future. 

PM to visit USA

is used instead of The Prime Minister is going to visit the USA.

As for the syntactic peculiarities, they are shown in the headline:

UK Banks: Hidden Treasures in Your safe-Deposit Box?

Such questions in the headline are not really typical question at all. They are statements followed by a question mark. Readers are not expected to give an answer. That is what the article is supposed to do. It might include a general prediction of consequences or outcomes. Colon (:) is often used to separate the subject of a headline from what is said about it.

In the headline

Media makes Madonna Mad

the sound 'm' is repeated 4 times.  So-called “sound” peculiarity – alliteration is a characteristic in newspapers as well as poetry to make the headline more memorable. 

The questionnaire among the students of BSTU has revealed that 60% of students can guess about what the article will be if they use dictionaries. 40% of the students don’t understand newspaper headlines at all. These results are not very different from the official statistics shown in the journal «Papers in Linguistics». About 35% have some difficulties in understanding the headline of the article. While a detailed analysis of newspaper style can be found in numerous books devoted to the subject but this report gives you an outline of some of its general features.

Headline language is elliptical and compressed. As we all know there is a close connection between the press and the readers. It is very important for the readers to study and to understand the headlines in order to be able to interpret them and to make a certain selection of what they read.

Newspaper readers are flooded on a daily basis with an amount of new information which they have neither the time nor the energy to process. However reading the articles keeps us up to date with all the world events. As the briefest summary of a news article, a headline is by no means a simple sentence. Instead, the English press developed a special style of a newspaper headline, which is characterized by extreme expressivity which is achieved with the help of various lexical, grammatical, syntactical and other means. The difficulty of understanding newspapers` and magazines` headlines is caused by two reasons: a big number of deviations from the literary norm and insufficient knowledge of cultural realities. So we should pay much attention to it while reading. Only after we truly learn the features of headline, we can fully understand its meaning and translate it.
УДК 62-6:811.111

Студ. А. В. Шакинко

Науч. рук. преп. Т. А. Ячная

(кафедра иностранных языков, БГТУ)

Sugar Energy

In today’s world Electricity is considered as an integral utility. We can never ever think of our lives without machines. Thus electricity plays a vital role in functioning of the society. Nowadays highly developed countries currently rely heavily on coal, oil, and natural gas for its energy. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, that is, they draw on finite resources that will eventually dwindle, becoming too expensive or too environmentally damaging to retrieve.

That is why today humanity faced with a global problem: From what source we can get the energy which is needed to generate electricity. One of the portable and convenient sources of this electrical energy is a Battery. Battery is the basic yet most powerful part of any device. Thus a bio battery is an energy storing device that is powered by organic compounds. It generates electricity from renewable fuels providing a sustained, on-demand portable power source which is not only a boon to the environment by being eco friendly but also it is an end to worries about non renewable and vanishing sources of energy. Main thing, that this bio battery works on white powder. Sugar of course.

How it works? As you probably know, from sucking down cans of Coke and masticating on candy, sugar — glucose, fructose, sucrose, dextrose — is an excellent source of energy. Biologically speaking, sugar molecules are energy-dense, easy to transport, and cheap to digest. Almost every living cell on Earth generates its energy (ATP) from glucose. When enzymes in our bodies break down glucose, several electrons and protons are released. Exactly they give us energy we need to live. But in addition to this important function, glucose can give as energy which is needed to generate electricity. Recently scientists invented Bio-Battery, in the base of this device lies method which was described before.

Like a conventional fuel cell battery, Bio Battery basically consists of an anode, cathode, electrolyte and separator. However, Bio Battery has certain specific characteristics. First, biological enzymes are used as catalysts for the anode and cathode. Second, enzymes and electronic mediators which transfer electrons between enzymes, and between enzymes and electrodes) are fixed on the anode and cathode. The bio battery Shows robust, repeatable, and reliable performance and stable operation from -30°C to +55°C and for more than 6 months. Which make them suitable for using almost in every part of the world and in kind of the device.

Improved design and performance leads to 50X higher volumetric power density over existing prototype. The longer term goal in this area is to further enhance performance to ultimately develop batteries suitable for notebook computers and other mobile devices. While many technological challenges still remain, Bio Battery has great potential as a next-generation energy device. Advantages include its excellent harmony with the environment as a product fueled by a carbohydrate (glucose) having high energy density.

It does not contain expensive elements and in the nearest future will be even cheaper than ordinary batteries. In addition to this there are a lot of different sources from which you can get glucose in its bare form, for example, from sugar, alcohol, diesel, ethanol and even from humans’ blood. So that is why Bio batteries can find applications in various fields like Military, commercial applications, Medical field, Consumer Electronics, etc.

Recently Japanese scientists from Tohoku University have invented a battery which works on blood. They are safe for the organism and can be used in artificial organs such as the heart and implanted measuring devices. Later they can generate electricity from the blood in the body. They can be also used in order to supply your mobile phone or player with electricity and they will do it without stop for a long period of time. We are glad to say, that is doesn’t stop on words and ideas. The exGiant of cell phone industry NOKIA in cooperation with world richest CocaCola corp. presented cell phone working on Coke.  The fuel source could be any sugary solution, but designer of this device Daizi Chan chose to use that well-known soft drink you can find just about anywhere in the world – Coca-Cola.

Another huge corporation Sony, whose might be called on pioneers in this area will continue to work toward the commercialization of this technology in the near future, initially for use in toys and other low-power products. Bio-batteries have a very bright future ahead of them as test productions and research have been increasing over recent years. They serve as a new form of energy that is proving to be environmentally friendly, as well as successful, in producing and reserving energy. Fully-integrated demonstrations are to be executed in close collaboration with customer, for relevant applications. Bio batteries find applications in various fields like military and commercial applications.

We can’t but mention that The U.S. military is exploring bio-batteries and fuel cells as part of its overall commitment to transformational energy, particularly portable power. To help kick-start the effort, the Department of Defense is soliciting bids for cutting edge bio-battery and fuel cell development through its Small Business Innovation Research grant program. That could mean just about anything for a fuel source, from sugar to potatoes, vodka or beer. Stay tuned for more: the deadline for submitting SBIR proposals is June 17. That means that anyone in the world who have the great ideas about bio-battery army development, have chance to realize this idea for U.S. funds and get solid monetary reward.

УДК 811.133.1

Студ. Я. О. Гаевская

Науч. рук. преп. Т. А. Сенькова

(кафедра иностранных языков, БГТУ)

L’ouverture du ballon


Les premières expériences: naissance de la montgolfière


Joseph-Michel et Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier, que nous appelons communément les Frères Montgolfier, sont passionnés pour les airs et les nouvelles machines! En faisant quelques expériences, ils ont decouvert que l’air chaud est plus léger que l’air froid. En effet, ils sont venu de fair gonfler une chemise en la tenant par le col, au dessus du feu de la cheminée.

Tous les deux se sont mis au travail. Pour commencer, ils ont choisir un globe d'un mètre cube, en soie. Ils l'ont chauffèré au-dessus d'un feu, et il est décollé d'une trentaine de mètres. Ces évènements a eu lieu en Novembre 1782. On peut les considérer comme la naissance de l'aérostatique. 

Ils travaillaient secrètement dans leur jardin, mais ils avaient peur que leurs voisins ne découvrent leurs expériences et qu'ils leurs volent l'idée: ils ont décidé donc d'organiser un envol public de leur ballon sur la place principale d'Annonay.

Le 4 juin 1783: le ballon est de 900 m3 en coton cousu sur du papier une nacelle est suspendue, remplie de paille et de laine. Le ballon s’envole jusqu’à 1000m, atterrit un peu plus loin dans un champ, mais se met à bruler, effrayant les paysans.

2. Le premier vol habité 

L'Académie a invité Montgolfier alors à Paris pour qu'ils fassent une démonstration. Etienne s’est rendu donc à Paris. Etienne a décidé alors d'entreprendre un vol humain. Pilâtre de Rosier s’est proposé pour être le passager, mais c'était considéré comme trop dangereux. Par conséquent, ils ont choisit de prendre un canard, un coq et un mouton pour ce premier vol habité. Cela eut lieu le 19 septembre à Versailles. Le Roi de France Louis XVI a assisté au vol. On a mis les trois animaux dans un panier suspendu à l'enveloppe. Après un vol de trois minutes, ils ont retrouvés vivants.


Les premiers vols humains


Louis XVI interdisait un vol humain. A force de négociations, il a finit par donner l'autorisation, mais a refusé d'y assister. Les frères Montgolfier avaient promis à leur père qu'ils ne voleraient jamais dans leur ballon.

Le premier «voyage» a bord d’un ballon s’est fait le 21 novembre 1783 par François Pilatre et le marquis d’Arlandes, q’ont volé d’ouest en est, au sud de Paris. Ce ballon volait à l’air chaud. Cette date est entré dans l'histoire.

Mais un mois plus tard, le physicien Charles et un fabriquant de toile nommé Rober ont volé pendant deux heures à partir du jardin des Tuileries à bord d’un ballon à hydrogen de leur fabrication.Charles a réussit à voler plus haut et plus loin que Pilâtre grâce à son ballon à hydrogen.

Alors Pilâtre voulait realizer un nouveau rêve: traverser la Manche. Il a construit alors un ballon gonflé à l’air chaud, avec un autre petit ballon gonflé à l’hydrogène… et a quitté la France en janvier 1785. Mais après quelques minutes, le feu a pris, le ballon est tombé et Pilatre de Rozier est devenu la première victim du vol en ballon.

Même si la mort de Pilâtre n'a pas arreté la pratique de la montgolfière, elle a mis en évidence le danger des ballons à air chaud. De plus, les dirigeables ont remplacé vite les ballons.



Les applications de la montgolfière

Dès la fin du XVIIIe siècle, la montgolfière a été utilisée pour l’observation militaire et l’envoi de messages en temps de guerre. Durant le siège de Paris par l’armée prussienne (1870-1871), les ballons libres ont été le seul moyen de maintenir les communications avec la province.

Les premiers baptêmes de l’air datent du milieu du XIXe siècle. A la fin des années 1950, l'utilisation de nylon pour l'enveloppe et de propane comme carburant ont relancé l’usage de la montgolfière. Aujourd’hui, ces ballons sont devenus des supports publicitaires pour les grandes entreprises qui sponsorisent divers événements.